List of sources


BICC is an independent, not-for profit organisation and deals with a wide range of global topics in the field of peace and conflict research centering on Conversion Studies.

BICC has been supporting the DDR programme in South Sudan since 2009. On the basis of this expertise, it also helps other African countries to implement DDR programmes. The disarmament of former combatants is the first step on a long journey towards reintegration. This is why BICC provides support to a number of African countries in developing measures for a secure stockpiling and marking of small arms and light weapons.



The CIC is affiliated with the University of New York. In close co-operation with the United Nations, the CIC gives an overview of peace operations worldwide on an annual basis. In 2013, it published a review of Political Missions that gives an overview of civilian deployments of various actors.



UNDP collects reports on finished projects for information management, planning, evaluation, results- and knowledge management. This includes DDR activities that were supported by UNDP. On its website, these reports can be searched systematically.



The UN DPA co-ordinates and administers political operations and peacebuilding support offices that work towards conflict prevention, measures to promote peace and post-conflict peacebuilding in Africa, Central Asia and in the Middle East. It lists data on current peace operations under the aegis of the DPA.


The World Bank

The World Bank, located in Washington, supports developing countries all over the world by financial and technical means. It focus lies in combating poverty in a sustainable manner through further training activities and advisory services. The World Bank has 188 members and is divided in five institutions. It obtains its data indicators on the population from the United Nations. United Nations estimates are based on the latest official census, as not all governments update their figures each year. It takes into account the birth and death rates as well as international migration.



The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, located in Brussels, is a military-economic-political alliance consisting European and north-american states. It was founded in 1949 under leadership of the United States and has currently 28 member states. While the cold war it was a contrary movement to the Warsaw Pact. Since the end of the cold war the NATO´s aim is to strengthen the military, economic, social and cultural cooperation. It participates in different international peacekeeping operations for example in Kosovo and Afghanistan. Critics remark that the NATO has not an international mandate for every operation.



The European External Action Service was founded in context with the “Treaty of Lisbon” as an independent and self-sufficient institution of the EU with the aim of strengthening trade relations. Owing to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) member states of the European Council can decide among others about common military and civil missions (training-, observation- or police-missions). The EAD coordinates these tasks and furthermore provides information about contingents of each member state.



In its annual Military Balance, the IISS publishes data on military personnel. The international institute provides research-based policy advice and deals with military and strategic questions. In the annual Military Balance, it provides information on the number of soldiers, weapons, population and GDP of up to 171 countries. A detailed list can be found of a respective country’s weapons and soldiers (including recruits and paramilitaries). The IISS also assesses the military capacities and arms economies. Additionally continued and new DD&R Missions are documented.



The United Nations were founded in 1945 as an international organization. Currently 193 member states bother with global solutions of different issues for example peace and security, climate change or sustainable development. Furthermore the UN deploys military and non-military personnel for DD&R initiatives and sends delegates of its institution into chosen states to actively support and/or lead the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process. For each affected country specifically tailored operations are being developed and implemented (UN Peacekeeping Operations). These missions are carried by different subgroups of the UN for example UNDPA (UN Department of Political Affairs) and UNDPKO (UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations).



The African Union was founded in 2002 and replaced the OAU (Organization of African Unity). Headquarter of the institution is Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. It is the aim of all member states to support the sustainable development of the African continent. Beside economic aspects the organization focuses on social and peacekeeping missions. For this purpose DD&R arrangements are an important tool for supporting stability in former crisis- and conflict areas.



The armed forces of the German Federal Republic were founded in 1955 and are named “Bundeswehr”. Until 1990 the troop strength was limited to a maximum of 495,000 soldiers. Their operations were limited to humanitarian aid in case of natural disasters, floodings or forest fires. The end of the cold war was a turning point of the global security situation and resulted in fundamental changes in the operation profile of Bundeswehr which also led to a reduction of personnel. International organizations and alliance partners claimed a German participation in armed international peacekeeping operations. Since this time the Bundeswehr is involved in operations all around the world and transformed from an army of defense to an (since 2011 - voluntary) intervention army. This process is accompanied by a political and social debate about its future. Germany supplies one of the biggest numbers of troops for EU- and NATO operations. For the deployment of German soldiers an UN-mandate is necessary. Former debates, for example in 2003 about a participation in Iraq War, demonstrate that this requirement may lead to disputes with the allies.


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Data tables

For some select map layers, the information portal ‘War and Peace’ provides the user with all used data sets as tables.

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Country portraits

In the country reports, data and information are collected by country and put into tables that are used in the modules as a basis for maps and illustrations.

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Navigation and operation

The information and data of each module are primarily made available as selectable map layers and are complemented by texts and graphs. The map layers can be found on the right hand side and are listed according to themes and sub-themes.

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