List of sources


BICC is an independent, non-profit organization that deals with a wide range of global topics in the field of peace and conflict research in response to the problems posed by organized violence.

From 1996 to 2006, BICC computed the dependence on natural resources of select countries. The variable Resource Dependence was derived as normalized share of the total of all revenues from select natural resources (oil, gas, coal, diamonds, gold, copper, iron, cobalt, sugar, coffee, cacao, poppy, cotton, rubber) of the total export proceeds of a country for that year and divided into three categories.



In the annual publication "WORLD MINING DATA", the production of 63 mineral resources in 169 countries is pooled and statistically processed. It presents detailed information as tables on the production of the 63 minerals (broken down by continents, groups of countries, development status, per capita income, economic blocs, political stability, largest producers, etc.) and the resource production according to producing countries.



The US EIA is the statistical and analytical office within the United States Department of Energy. The EIA offers a broad spectrum of politically independent data, prognoses and analyses on the (efficient) use of energy, electricity, nuclear power and renewable energies, oil- and gas fields, coal deposits. It also analyzes energy supply and demand, prices, as well as the effect financial markets, have on energy markets. It publishes reports on the current and future use of energy, analyzes the effects of energy policy and implements new techniques for implementing energy information.



The EITI, together with civil society in the Publish What You Pay (PWYP) campaign, strive to achieve more transparency of balance sheets and the distribution of revenues from the gas, oil and mining sector. Founded in 2002 during the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, EITI has 49 resource producing member countries (February 2016). Membership in the Initiative is purely voluntary. Governments and companies alike can declare their willingness to disclose company payments to governments. Like the Kimberley Process, EITI is a multi-stakeholder initiative that unifies governments, companies and civil society.



On its website, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations publishes statistical data of its member states. The FAO was established in 1943. Eradicating hunger and achieving food security for all lies at the heart of FAO’s efforts. This is done by improving the production and distribution of food, the living conditions of the rural population and driving forward economic and social progress of all. The FAO does not get involved in the politics of its member states. The most important tool for achieving their goal is to pass on technical knowledge on food production.



In view of the serious ecological, economic and social consequences of illegal logging, the European Union published the Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade action plan in 2003. This action plan acknowledges that the EU is an important export market for countries with widespread illegal logging and bad governance The two most important tools for the implementation of the FLEGT action plan are 1) a proof of legality (FLEGT license) that is to certify the clearance of the traded wood and 2) voluntary partnership agreements (VPA) that constitute a legally binding agreement between the European Union (EU) and each timber exporting country.



The Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research (HIIK) at the Department of Political Science at the University of Heidelberg is a non-profit registered association that was established in 1991. It is dedicated to the distribution of knowledge over the emergence, course, and settlement of interstate and intrastate political conflicts. Its research outcomes have been published since 1991 in the Conflict Barometer as an annual analysis of the global conflict events and can be called up via a publicly accessible database. It lists intra-state and international political conflicts as of the year 1853 and distinguishes five levels of intensity. The first two levels of conflict, dispute and non-violent crisis, deal with non-violent conflict. The next three levels, violent crisis, limited war and war describe violent conflict. All conflicts are related to one or more conflict issues, such as the conflict issue "natural resources."



The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) is an international organization promoting the conservation and sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources; its members are both timber-producing and purchasing countries. It was established in 1986 and is financed via voluntary pledges. ITTO promotes the conservation and sustainable management, use and trade of tropical forest resources. Since 2006, it publishes an annual report on the status of tropical forest management in which information on the area and condition of tropical rain forests and their management are collected. Various organizations criticize the data published by FAOStat and ITTO, pointing out that these are partly wrong, incomplete and not up to date. However, due to the lack of other freely available global data sets, we use these sources of data as a reference nevertheless.



The Kimberley Process or Kimberley Process Certification Scheme has been internationally adopted by governments, companies and civil society to stop the trade in conflict diamonds. The KP was introduced in January 2003 and is supported by the United Nations. The Scheme requires the governments of diamond-producing countries to certify shipments of rough diamonds as ‘conflict-free' and prevent conflict diamonds from entering the legitimate trade. Each rough diamond requires a certificate of origin and can only be exported into KP member states. This Certification Scheme is one of the few legally-binding regimes regulating the trade in conflict resources. Today, it has 54 participants (the 28 member states of the European Union count as one participant). Every six months, member countries present production data of rough diamonds; every three months, they submit trade data. These data are publicly available on the websites of the Kimberley Rough Diamond Statistics from the year 2004 to present.



Transparency International e.V. is a non-profit organization that publishes the Corruption Perceptions Index on an annual basis The Index measures the perceived degree of corruption among politicians and officials. The majority of the 175 countries under review scored less than 50 points on a scale from 0 (perceived as highly corrupt) to 100 points (perceived as little corrupt). The Corruption Perceptions Index is a composite index that is based on different censuses conducted with experts and companies alike, carried out by nine independent institutions. For this Index, business people and country analysts are interviewed, and censuses conducted with nationals of a country, whether they live in the country or abroad, are also taken into account.


UN Comtrade

Since 1962, the UN COMTRADE database makes available annual statistics on international foreign trade. Since 2010, it also makes monthly statistics for 50 countries available. The data sets that are free of charge are classified in 90 product groups and have been converted into US dollars taking into consideration the current country-specific exchange rates.



The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) publishes the World Drug Report annually.

The data in the 2017 Report are mainly based on information provided by the 107 states or territories in the annual report questionnaire (ARQ) between March and December 2016 and that describe the drug situation in 2016.

While for Europe (90%) and Asia (63%) the majority of the member countries filed a report, data for North and South America (44%) and for Africa and Oceania (21% respectively) is more incomplete. Lacking or insufficient data have been, when possible, complemented by additional sources.



The World Trade Organization deals with the rules of trade between nations at a global or near-global level and was established in 1994. It has 162 members (February 2016). Its main tasks are to lower trade barriers and the liberalization of international trade. It collects data on trade from various different sources on an annual basis, unifies and publishes them. Data used in the calculation indicate the total import or export value of a country in US dollars.


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Data tables

For some select map layers, the information portal ‘War and Peace’ provides the user with all used data sets as tables.

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Country portraits

In the country reports, data and information are collected by country and put into tables that are used in the modules as a basis for maps and illustrations.

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Navigation and operation

The information and data of each module are primarily made available as selectable map layers and are complemented by texts and graphs. The map layers can be found on the right hand side and are listed according to themes and sub-themes.

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