List of sources

Amnesty International

Amnesty International collects data on the probability of enforcement of the death penalty, the number of death penalties and the number of executions in individual countries. Only a few countries have and publish statistics on the number of death penalties and executions. A lot of data is either calculated or estimated by Amnesty International and published as minimum specification. This is why all data can only be used as guiding values.

Links:

Bastick, Megan; Karin Grimm and Rahel Kunz (2007)

The data are mostly based on the book „Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict, Global Overview and Implications for the Security Sector“ by Megan Bastick, Karin Grimm and Rahel Kunz. BICC has complemented and updated the data on wartime rape from other sources. Due to the difficulty of obtaining reliable data on the use of sexual violence (rape) in wars and conflicts, this data set does not claim to be complete.

Links:

CSP (Center for Systemic Peace)

The CSP runs the Polity IV project, which codes political systems of countries with an index value between -10 and 10 for the years 1800 to 2013. Values between -10 and 6 represent autocracies, values between -5 and 5 for anocracies, and values higher than 6 represent democracies. The index value is calculated from six components, one of which is the selection of the executive officers or political competition.

Links:

Child Soldiers International

Child Soldiers International was established in 1998 to improve the available data and public perception of child soldiers in conflict situations. The underlying definition of children is that of persons under the age of 18. Children do not have to actively use weapons but can, either constantly or for a certain period of time work as courier, spy, guard, cook, messenger, carrier, etc. Children who were trained and recruited before they turned 18 are also included in the dataset.

Links:

CIRI (Cingranelli-Richards)

The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights dataset documents how states deal with human rights, how they adhere to and disregard 15 different human rights worldwide for 1981 to 2011. Based on the reports of the US State Department and Amnesty International, CIRI codes the occurrence of torture in three categories. It records the country in which people are tortured rather than the state that tortured or ordered them to be tortured. Torture is defined as the intentional and targeted infliction of physical or psychological pain by state officials or civilian actors on state orders. As torture is not officially documented or cannot officially be inflicted, data can only be used as guiding values; there are no established data to back this up.

Links:

CIRI (Cingranelli-Richards)

The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights dataset documents how states deal with human rights, how they adhere to and disregard 15 different human rights worldwide for 1981 to 2011. It calculates the Physical Integrity Rights Index to be able to show data on the adherence to the right of physical integrity. Physical integrity is a human right and contains the absence of torture, extrajudicial killings, political imprisonment and the disappearances of unwanted persons. The values of the index range from 0 to 8, with 8 representing a total adherence of that human right and 0 represents no adherence to the right to physical integrity.

Links:

ETH (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich)

The ETH has taken up the further development of the “Ethnic Power relations” dataset. It comprises all politically relevant ethnic main groups, differentiated between common linguistic, somatic and religious aspects, for 155 sovereign states from 1946 to 2010. Politically relevant means either that at least one actor active in political life (political organisation) claims to represent the political interests of an ethnic group or that members of single ethnic groups are systematically and purposefully discriminated against. The participation of ethnic groups are divided into those that participate in the political arena (monopoly, dominant, senior partner, junior partner) and those who do not (regional autonomy, powerless, discriminated).

Links:

Harvard Kennedy School, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs and PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo)

The Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict (SVAC) Data Set is the most current and complete data set presenting reports of conflict-related sexual violence perpetrated by armed forces (state armed forces, rebel groups or paramilitary forces) for 1989 to 2009. The data set contains information on incidences, group of perpetrators, victims, kind of sexual violence used, time and location of the reported incidences. The data for the SVAC data set have been supplied by the US State Department, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch.

Links:

Natural Earth and GAUL

The data presented have been taken from the Natural Earth Dataset and from the GAUL Dataset (Global Administrative Unit Layers) of the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). BICC has checked both datasets for completeness, revised and adapted them. Territories marked are the often very small contested territories and countries affected by territorial disputes. As there are differences between these two datasets, the source is shown when clicking on the territories.

Links:

PTS (Political Terror Scale)

The PTS refers to extrajudicial killings, torture, abduction, political imprisonment and calculates its index on the basis of data from Amnesty International and the US State Department’s Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. The index values are grouped in five classes: Class 1, with values up to 1 signifies that a country is free and only infrequently imprisons people due to their opinion. Class 5, with a value of 5 signifies that a state oppresses its entire population and heads of state do everything to promote their own ideological and/or private interests and goals. All data have to be understood as guiding values; the corresponding country reports are a more detailed source of information on the country.

Links:

UCDP (Uppsala Conflict Data Program) and PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo)

The UCDP and PRIO annually publish the Armed Conflict Dataset and the Battle-Related Deaths Dataset. These have been combined to localise wars and conflict. The underlying definition of war only recognises wars or conflicts in which at least one state is involved and which results in at least 25 battle-related deaths. They classify wars into extra state / extra systemic violent conflicts (state against non-state actor outside of existing borders), inter-state conflict (between two states) and intra-state (state against non-state actor within existing borders) and internationalised intra-state conflicts (state aided by other states against non-state actor within existing borders).

Links:

UCDP (Uppsala Conflict Data Program)

PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo)

UCDP (Uppsala Conflict Data Program) and PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo)

The UCDP and PRIO annually publish the Armed Conflict Dataset. This is used to count the participation of countries that have been directly involved in conflicts. The underlying definition only considers wars and conflicts in which at least one party to the conflict is a state, and the conflict results in at least 25 battle-related deaths.

Links:

UCDP (Uppsala Conflict Data Program)

PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo)

UCDP (Uppsala Conflict Data Program)

The UCDP annually publishes the Battle-Related Deaths Dataset with numbers of victims of war. The current dataset comprises data from 1989 to 2013, and they refer to violent conflict that, according to the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset is defined as war. A war is defined as at least one party to the conflict is a state, and the conflict results in at least 25 battle-related deaths. All direct victims as well as victims that have died from injuries sustained in a war are included in the statistics. All information is to be understood as guide values. It cannot be excluded that parties to the conflict play down their own losses in military personnel and, at the same time, blow up those of the opposite party or their losses of their own civilian population while minimising those of the opponent to generate an official justification for the war and to influence public opinion (media, increase readiness for war in the population). Depending on the country, a verification of the data is difficult.

Links:

UCDP (Uppsala Conflict Data Program) and PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo)

The UCDP and PRIO annually publish the Armed Conflict Dataset and the Battle-Related Deaths Dataset. These have been combined to localise wars and conflict. The underlying definition of war only recognises wars or conflicts in which at least one state is involved and which results in at least 25 battle-related deaths. They classify wars into extra state / extra systemic violent conflicts (state against non-state actor outside of existing borders), inter-state conflict (between two states) and intra-state (state against non-state actor within existing borders) and internationalised intra-state conflicts (state aided by other states against non-state actor within existing borders).

Links:

UCDP (Uppsala Conflict Data Program)

PRIO (Peace Research Institute Oslo)

UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)

In 2013, UNODC published the "Global Study on Homicide" based on the "UNODC Homicide Statistics dataset" updated in 2012. In the publication, the data on violence and crime to 2012 are discussed. All country data have been collected by queries to the police of the individual countries and then harmonised. Gaps in the data are due to the transfer of information of single countries with the respective data collection by the police and reports of citizens.

Links:

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme)

Since 1990, the UNDP publishes the annual Human Development Index (HDI). This is used as a global indicator of wealth and shows ‘differences in development.’ The Index is made up of various dimensions of human development: life expectancy, years of schooling and further education, education index and the gross national income. According to their index value, countries are assigned to one of the four classes: Very highly developed countries, highly developed countries, countries with medium human development, and countries with low human development.

Links:

UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)

On a regular basis, UNODC publishes global statistics on crime and criminal justice, on the drugs trade and prices, on drugs production and use. Member states are advised to gather data for an annual Criminal Trend Statistics - CTS and to pass this on to UNODC. Gaps in the data are due to the transfer of information of single countries with the respective data collection by the police and reports of citizens.

In the study, robbery is defined as a “theft of property from a person, overcoming resistance by force or threat of force”. Robbery does not include extortion and pickpocketing.

Links:

The World Bank - Population data

The World Bank is based in Washington, DC. With financial and technical funds, it supports developing countries worldwide. Its focus is the sustainable fight against poverty by further training and advisory activities. The World Bank has got 188 members and consists of five institutions. It obtains its data on the population from the United Nations. As not all governments regularly present (accurate) data, the United Nations base their estimates on the latest official census, taking birth- and death rates as well as international migration into account.

Links:

The World Bank - GINI Index

The World Bank publishes the Gini Coefficient on a yearly basis. This Index (0 to 100) shows the equality (low levels) and the inequality (high levels) of distribution of wealth within a country. Raw data are household surveys in the countries or data from the World Bank country offices. Data for countries with a high income are taken from the Luxemburg Income Study database. As there is no constant global annual data set for the Gini coefficient, the values indicated mirror the data of the past 10 years. Data used to calculate the Gini coefficient were/are only collected and calculated for a share of all countries on a yearly basis.

Links:


Data tables

Data tables

For some select map layers, the information portal ‘War and Peace’ provides the user with all used data sets as tables.

Country reports

Country reports

In the country reports, data and information are collected by country and put into tables that are used in the modules as a basis for maps and illustrations.

Navigation and operation

Navigation and operation

The information and data of each module are primarily made available as selectable map layers and are complemented by texts and graphs. The map layers can be found on the right hand side and are listed according to themes and sub-themes.